The Russian T-90 Tank is a third-generation main battle tank that entered service with the Russian Military in 1992. The tank is a modernisation of the T-72B and incorporates many features found on the T-80U. It is one of the most advanced tank in service with the Russian Ground Forces and the Naval Infantry.
The T-90 main battle tank (MBT) was designed and built by Uralvagonzavod, which is a subsidiary of the Russian defence conglomerate Rostec. It was developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s as a response to the improved armour of the Western tanks, particularly the M1 Abrams and Challenger 2.
The Russian Army ordered 327 T-90 tanks in 1993, and the first batch of 10 T-90 tanks was delivered in 1994. The Russian Army has since ordered over 2,000 T-90 tanks.
The T-90 features several improvements over its predecessors, including a more powerful engine, improved armour, and better firepower.
It is powered by a V-92S2 12-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine, which produces 1,000hp. It is a further development of the V-84 engine used in the T-80 series tanks. The T-90 has a maximum road speed of 60km/h and a maximum cross-country speed of 40km/h. It has a maximum road range of 500km and a maximum cross-country range of 310km. It can also ford water obstacles up to 1.8m deep.
The tank is protected by a combination of steel armour, composite armour, and ERA (Explosive Reactive Armour). The tank’s hull and turret are protected by steel armour, while the front of the hull and turret are protected by composite armour. The tank’s sides are protected by ERA, which is designed to detonate incoming HEAT rounds before they penetrate the armour.
The T-90 is armed with a 125mm 2A46M-5 main gun, which is capable of firing HE-FRAG (high explosive fragmentation), APFSDS (armour-piercing fin-stabilised discarding sabot) and guided missiles. The tank is also armed with a 7.62mm PKT machine gun, a 12.7mm NSVT anti-aircraft machine gun and a bank of four smoke grenade launchers.
It has a crew capacity of three: commander, gunner and driver. The commander sits in the left side of the turret, while the gunner sits to the right of the main gun. The driver sits in the front left of the hull. The T-90 is equipped with a passive night vision system for the driver and an active night vision system for the commander and gunner.
T-90 has been used in combat in the Chechen War, the War in Syria, and the War in Ukraine. In 2008, Russia placed the tank into service with its Strategic Rocket Forces.
It has also been exported to various countries including India, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Algeria, Morocco, Syria, Venezuela and Vietnam. In 2010, UVZ delivered 102 T-90 tanks to the Indian Army.
Indian Army’s T-90 tanks were used in the Kargil War in 1999.
Overall, the T-90 is a versatile tank that can be used in a variety of combat situations. It is a well-rounded tank that is armed with a powerful main gun and has good mobility and protection.